Close Quarters, by Michael Gilbert (1947)

close-quartersThis volume has come to mind a couple of times recently, mostly because I did a post on a clerical mystery and it came up in the comments. Then I found my 1952 Hodder & Stoughton 2′ edition (paper-bound, about the size of a digest magazine like EQMM, with an illustration by Jarvis of a shocked clergyman. I’ve shown it here) and thought I’d show off my nice copy and reaffirm my approval of this excellent debut novel by Michael Gilbert. Please pardon my terrible photography but I wanted to show you this funky old edition and couldn’t find an instance on the internet I could scoop to show you.

This was first published in 1947 but has the flavour of an earlier time, to be sure. This is an old-fashioned mystery indeed, what with its numerous plans of the geography of a clerical Close — like a gated community surrounding a cathedral that houses all the attendant clerics and hangers-on. And there is an actual cryptic crossword contained within the pages, that must be solved to reveal a clue. This might be one of the last works of detective fiction to contain a geographic plan without any hint of irony whatever; a delightful hearkening back to the Golden Age.

WARNING: This essay concerns a work of detective fiction, which means that part of its potential enjoyment is based on surprising the reader. If you read this review, you are likely to find out more than you may want to know about this novel, although the solution to the crime and many other significant details are not revealed here. If you proceed past this point, you’re on your own. 

What is this book about?

51r3ucwctol-_ac_us160_In the first chapter, the Dean of Melchester Cathedral is lying awake worrying. His sleepless night allows him to painlessly introduce us to both the Close itself and its cast of inhabitants, and a few of their ongoing problems. Someone is persecuting Appledown, the head verger, with some vicious anonymous letters. And the other morning someone put an overlay on the flag raised in the morning saying “Boozey old Appledown”, to the great amusement of the choirboys charged with flag duty. And then there’s the recent accidental death of Canon Whyte, who fell more than a hundred feet from a high tower. The Dean has to balance everyone’s schedules to cover absences and holidays, and is having a troublesome time doing so. The widow of the late Canon Judd refuses to leave the home to which she is no longer entitled. The Dean’s sleepless night is fully occupied with troubles.

It’s when someone paints a rude message in letters two feet high slandering Appledown once again that the Dean feels he must take a hand. He pulls a few discreet strings at the higher levels of Scotland Yard and has his own nephew, Sergeant Pollock, a budding young C.I.D. officer, come for a visit whose unofficial and hush-hush purpose is to investigate the anonymous letters.

51h1sobzqel-_ac_ul320_sr240320_Pollock, a thoroughly nice and respectful young man, soon identifies that the Cathedral’s Close is what we would know as a “closed circle”; because of the geography, it’s possible to  say with certainty that the blackening of Appledown’s name has been undertaken by someone who lives within the Close. Very shortly thereafter, a body is found, and Pollock’s investigation steps up its intensity with the addition of his superior from Scotland Yard, Chief Inspector Hazlerigg, who leads the remainder of the investigation.

Among helps and hindrances, the unspeakable Mrs. Judd sees fit to keep track of the daily lives of her neighbours with the aid of a telescope, and while her eyesight is not what it could be, she still provides valuable information. The lives of all the Close’s inhabitants are gone into, in detail, and reveal various surprises; some unsavoury, some amusing. A mysterious crossword puzzle discovered among the effects of the late Canon Whyte provides a clue to the location of some vital documents. There is another death, and this one is a little more brutal and unpleasant than most of the Golden Age; the stakes become much higher. Various more facts come quickly to light, and finally Inspector Hazlerigg makes an arrest and explains everything to the fascinated Dean in the final chapter.

Why is this book worth your time?

1807452It occurred to me as I was thinking about this book that the best way of describing its position in the broader sweep is as the perfect homage — and farewell — to the Golden Age. Although this book was published in 1947, we do not find out until the last three lines of the book that its date was the “summer of 1937”. To wit:

“Pollock tiptoed out. He felt an overmastering desire for a steak — done red — and a pint of milk stout. Since it was the summer of 1937 he got both without difficulty.”

Parenthetically, that says a lot, doesn’t it? My sense is that in 1947 one could get neither because food rationing was still firmly in place.

I have no idea what Michael Gilbert (1912-2006) was actually thinking when he wrote this, his first novel in a long writing career; to me, he was writing a commercial product that he felt would sell, but one which revealed a great knowledge of the highways and byways of Golden Age mystery plotting and a great affection for the genre. What he accomplished was to create a series character in Inspector Hazlerigg who lasted at least six novels, until 1953, and who was the lead detective in the well-known classic Smallbone Deceased (#4, in 1950).

6426This is a love song to Golden Age mysteries gone by, what with the lovingly detailed maps, an actual crossword puzzle, and the determination early on that the Close is, well, closed. Gilbert was signaling here that, yes, he loved this old form and would proceed to write a bunch more Golden Age mysteries (including a brilliantly clever book about a murder in an Italian prisoner-of-war camp, 1952’s Death in Captivity). So it was a vain effort, in a way, since the true Golden Age mystery was on its deathbed in the 1950s. But we got six excellent mysteries out of his homage.

105297717_amazoncom-close-quarters-9780600200819-michael-gilbertGilbert’s career changed direction in 1959 with the publication of Blood and Judgment, (a novel; see the comments below) about Inspector Petrella of Scotland Yard. I briefly discussed another volume in this series here. This series were still puzzle stories, after a fashion, but at this point Gilbert had successfully embraced the best intentions of the kitchen-sink school and/or a kind of social realism. Petrella’s streets were dirtier and grittier than Hazlerigg’s by a long shot. Later Gilbert moved into the area of the spy novel (or rather the intelligence agent novel) with the creation of the elderly Mr. Calder and Mr. Behrens, among other characters; he wrote a lot of non-series novels and short stories.

One tiny little genre that he returned to again and again was the small field of the “men’s adventure novel” — think Nick Carter, Killmaster, and a kind of muscular and aggressive novel where things blow up and the strong-jawed hero gets the girl. Yes, Gilbert wrote those novels, but he wrote them omitting most of the explosions and with a healthy dose of reality governing the action; intelligent observation and a sensible approach to human nature are his hallmarks. There are a number of novels of his that can be described as “one lone wolf takes on a corrupt organization”, and I’ve always found him a dependable provider of that particular plotline, much like Dick Francis. 1966’s The Crack in the Teacup is an excellent example.

michael-gilbert-books-and-stories-and-written-works-u4

Michael Gilbert

He even wrote a companion piece to the current volume; 1984’s The Black Seraphim takes place against a similar location and background but has a considerably more modern feeling about it. At this point in his career Gilbert was in full command of his style and could vary it to meet the needs of his chosen subject matter; now he is far beyond the repressed virtues of the Golden Age mystery. The Night of the Twelfth (1976) is a really well done and occasionally horrific novel about a serial killer of young boys; 1980’s Death of a Favourite Girl has a very surprising and sexually frank ending. Gilbert was one of a few authors who maintained his full command of his art up until he retired.

The point of this particular novel, though, is that it’s an absolutely classic Golden Age mystery as the first novel of a writer who went on to write some top-notch novels in a more modern idiom. It’s really, really well done. There is some excellent character work — for instance the horrible Mrs. Judd, who is drawn with a broad brush, but whose unpleasant presence is necessary to the plot. You will truly believe that she spies upon her neighbours with a telescope. The book is full of moments of gentle humour mostly based on observation and character, and about tiny moments in the everyday lives of real people. Oh, and Gilbert wipes the eye of Dorothy L. Sayers in at least one respect. Sayers’s representation of how people solve cryptograms and such puzzles (in The Nine Tailors,  Have His Carcase, and a boring short story), is painful and mawkish; it’s like a solution guide being mouthed by cardboard puppets. Michael Gilbert, on the other hand, can have you overhearing two people who are working together to solve a cryptic crossword and having fun doing it, and at the same time, for American readers and non-cruciverbalists in general, explaining the principles gently and easily without making a big deal of it.

The solution to the mystery is difficult but not absolutely impossible for the reader; always a pleasant experience to be fooled on some but not all of the answer. You will be diverted by the high quality of the writing and amused by the economical but effective characterization. You will also have the pleasure of having a first-hand description of some recondite practices and habits of the clerical inhabitants of a tiny closed community, from the point of view of a keen-eyed observer with a great sense of humour. I recommend you start here and read your way through the entirety of Mr. Gilbert’s work; through re-encountering this great novel, I think I’ll have another read through his oeuvre myself!

Cover art through the ages: The Red Box (1937), by Rex Stout

case-of-red-box-nero-wolfeThe first book publication of The Red Box, the fourth Nero Wolfe novel by Rex Stout, was actually not the first edition; the story was serialized in The American Magazine over five issues in 1936-1937. It’s a story that begins with a beautiful model who dies after eating a piece of poisoned candy from a box that she’s stolen as a prank, in the offices of a fashion company where she is employed. The owner of the company is the next to die — in Wolfe’s office, poisoned by an aspirin tablet; before he dies, he tells Wolfe that the key to the mystery will be found in a red leather box. The third murder is committed by a trap that spills a poisonous substance upon someone getting into a car; the final death by poison is that of the murderer in Wolfe’s office.

With a story like this, you won’t be surprised to note that most of the cover artists focus on the red box itself, which is frequently conflated with the box of chocolates, and the beautiful and deceased fashion model … but there are occasional surprises, like the Jove edition that shows us the deadly aspirin tablet. Poison and orchids are a constant motif, of course.

There’s an early edition (Avon #82) from Avon that is very attractive, and was repurposed for Avon Murder Mystery Monthly #9 in 1943. But my favourite is the cheerfully vulgar Avon T-216, which shows about as much leg as was legally allowed (and changes the title to Case of the Red Box) and is a classic Good Girl Art cover. Avon #82, though, drew the attention of the New Yorker magazine, who mentioned in a small paragraph in 1946 that this book contained 17 instances where Wolfe wiggled a finger. Over the years the reprint rights devolved to Bantam, who has kept the book in print pretty much continuously ever since. It is sad to note that Nero Wolfe is now at what might be the poorest level of publishing, since Bantam is now reprinting the series in “twofer” volumes. But the first edition, a restrained design in shades of grey and red, is elegant and lovely and reminds us of former glories.

It was probably this novel to which Edmund Wilson was referring in 1944 when he complained that he felt that he was “unpacking large crates by swallowing the excelsior in order to find at the bottom a few bent and rusty nails”, but most critics would be much kinder to this book than that. The solution is ingenious and depends upon Nero Wolfe’s mastery of linguistic niceties, and Archie Goodwin is his characteristically saucy self throughout. You can get a Very Good first edition in a Very Good restored jacket today for US$6,000, a nice copy of Avon T-216 for US$20, and a Kindle edition for $6.95.

 

Cover art through the years: The Rasp, by Philip Macdonald (1924)

Cover art through the years: The Rasp, by Philip Macdonald (1924)

It’s clear that my most popular posts have been the ones where I say the least and show the most pictures; my readership figures for recent posts collecting the cover art of Dorothy L. Sayers and John Dickson Carr have been through the roof. So I’ll be bringing you more posts like that in the future, since they’re easy to put together and fun to conceive, and you folks like them. I’ll be calling these “Cover art through the years” unless they’re affiliated with another blogging project like Tuesday Night Bloggers.

The best way to appreciate how styles in cover art have changed, I think, is to take a classic book that has been frequently in print over many years and see how many iterations its design can go through. I decided on the spur of the moment to pick a book from my shelves at random — well, no, I should be more truthful. This happened when I was shelving books and sorting alphabetically by author.  As I muttered to myself, “Is it really necessary to have FOUR different copies of The Rasp on my active shelves?” an idea was born. And so I scoured the internet for different photos of different editions.

Look how many different ways of seeing the cover art there have been! It’s interesting, because the central mystery puzzle of this novel is dependent upon — and I’ll be circumspect about how I phrase this — a visual image. The only artist to even come close to this visual image (a) gets it wrong, and (b) is close to giving away the mystery; unfortunately all this suggests to me is that a bunch of art directors didn’t bother to read the book carefully before packaging it, which is quite common these days and apparently was back then also.

I do like the earliest Collins hardcovers, which are classically lurid, but my favourite here would have to be the cheerful surrealism of 1984’s edition from Vintage, where two oval portraits and a fireplace grate combine to form a shocked face. My second favourite would be US Penguin #79, with an extremely detailed pencil drawing and some exquisite typography.

But the most valuable paperback edition is the first UK Penguin (greenback) printing from 1937, in excellent condition with a crisp paper dust jacket (yes, early UK Penguins had a jacket; it adds hugely to their value if present). This edition also seems to be #79, which is a peculiar coincidence or else more probably my research has misled me. (added later the same day: See below in the comments; my expert friend John from Pretty Sinister books confirms that they are both #79, published years apart, and it’s just a strange coincidence.) Because of the superb condition and the provenance — it comes from the collection of Ian Ballantine, who founded Ballantine Books — ABE’s most expensive copy is priced today at US$175. A “Good” copy (“Good” is bookseller code for “barely acceptable as a reading copy”) of the 3rd printing with a chipped jacket will set you back US$60.

Which one is your favourite? And if anyone knows if UK Penguin #79 and US Penguin #79 are both The Rasp, let me know in the comments, please!